Caribbean In/Securities: Creativity and Negotiation in the Caribbean (CARISCC)



“In-secure Neighbourhoods: Negotiating Social Equity and Agency” – written by guest blogger Dr Jasneth Mullings (University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica)

Using excerpts from the book ‘Going Crazy in the City: Neighbourhood Context and Mental Health’, this blog reflects on depreciated community environments which have increased the social and economic in-securities for Jamaicans. It considers the relevance of agency to community development, recognizing the need to bridge the inequities in agency to facilitate more creative responses for sustainable development.  The book uses vignettes to provide insights into the lived experiences of Jamaicans of diverse socioeconomic and political backgrounds, living in ‘Bottom River’ [an informal/squatter settlement], ‘Middle Ground’ [a middle-income community], ‘Hill Drive’ [an affluent community] and ‘Country Road’ [a rural community].

 “…The residents of Bottom River were a proactive and resourceful set. With no legal access to electricity and in dire need of this modern convenience, the young at heart wasted no time in constructing what seemed like a practical plan to acquire this urgently needed resource. They obtained reams of left over wire from a construction site and attached them to the light pole which ran closest to their community. The wires spun out in a pattern much like the network of arteries and veins in the human body. In some spaces it resembled a colourful and intricately designed spider web. Bottom River had a special communication system, like a morse code to alert members when the authorities or strange faces were seen on the fringes of the settlement…” (pg 59).

Figure 12. Life in Bottom River (pg. 60) – Illustrated by Clovis Brown. Image courtesy of the artist. Copyright: Clovis Brown.

Community Action and Agency

With depreciating physical environments occurring across the landscape from Bottom River to Middle Ground, all the way to Hill Drive, an important question to ask is ‘Have residents taken the necessary action to improve  their environments and if not, why not?’ How much is this wrapped up in access to resources, power or status? One answer may lie in the concept of agency. Agency is an expression of individual power to take action on a matter of importance in a given set of circumstances. Hill Drive residents made efforts to garner resources to repair roads, etc. through their access to the corridors of political power. Beverly and Tina recognized their inability to change their environment in Bottom River. Hence their move to Hill Drive, spurred by the need to reside in an environment perceived as safe and one in which Jahmal would more likely be exposed to positive influences which could have a lifelong impact. But what of Bottom River and the residents who had to remain there? What would their outcomes be over their life course? Persons like Carlyle, Ms. Esmie, Joan and Mama are forced to accept their conditions and make decisions (e.g. purchasing a new car) which may not be in their best interest long-term. Their lack of control over their environment and inability to change their living circumstances could undoubtedly have a long-term negative impact on them and their families.

Some critical questions for consideration are:

  • How can residents of all communities be afforded agency?
  • What are the forces that will propel them to demand and/or institute the changes they deem necessary to preserve their health and well-being?
  • What support is needed to realize this potential and where are the sources of such support available?” (pg 122)

A sense of local agency is integral to the functioning of a community. The empowerment of citizens through training and other social development programmes brings life to a community and gives a voice to its people. State/citizen and non-state partnerships are needed to address challenges of urban blight and the accompanying social decay. Such multi-sectoral collaboration can best offer creative prospects for a more integrated, de-politicized and sustainable approach to community development.

Written by Dr Jasneth Mullings
Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica

17 January 2018


Excerpts from the book ‘Going Crazy in the City: Neighbourhood Context and Mental Health (2017).
Authors: Jasneth Mullings with Rainford Wilks, The University of the West Indies, Mona
Arawak Publications Arawak publications |Publisher & Publishing Consultants.

Jasneth Mullings is currently assigned to the Health Research Resource Unit, Faculty of Medical Sciences, UWI Mona as an Epidemiologist/Research Scientist, where she is supporting the Faculty s research programme. Her research spans community health and health systems research and interventions. Rainford Wilks, is founding Professor of Epidemiology and founding former Director of the Epidemiology Research Unit (ERU), TMRI, UWI. His clinical, research and teaching interests are in the chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), primarily in cardiovascular diseases, and their risk factors.

For further information about this publication, please contact the authors via email c/o:;


Afro-Mexican Constructions of #Diaspora, Gender, Identity and Nation


Thank you to Dr Kevon Rhiney for bringing to our attention this new book by Paulette A. Ramsay.

The book is entitled ‘Afro-Mexican Constructions of Diaspora, Gender, Identity and Nation’ and is published by UWI.

“Paulette Ramsay’s study analyses cultural and literary material produced by Afro-Mexicans on the Costa Chica de Guerrero y Oaxaca, Mexico, to undermine and overturn claims of mestizaje or Mexican homogeneity.

The interdisciplinary research draws on several theoretical constructs: cultural studies, linguistic anthropology, masculinity studies, gender studies, feminist criticisms, and broad postcolonial and postmodernist theories, especially as they relate to issues of belonging, diaspora, cultural identity, gender, marginalization, subjectivity and nationhood. The author points to the need to bring to an end all attempts at extending the discourse, whether for political or other reasons, that there are no identifiable Afro-descendants in Mexico. The undeniable existence of distinctively black Mexicans and their contributions to Mexican multiculturalism is patently recorded in these pages.

The analyses also aid the agenda of locating Afro-Mexican literary and cultural production within a broad Caribbean aesthetics, contributing to the expansion of the Caribbean as a broader cultural and historical space which includes Central and Latin America.”

Please see book reviews through this link:


A Caribbean Culture Reader

Meagan Sylvester shared this on her page last September 2nd…

Source: A Caribbean Culture Reader

Sustainable Art Communities: Creativity and Policy in the Transnational Caribbean<>

ISSN 2050-3679

Dear Colleagues,

I am very pleased to announce the completion of Issue 5 of the Open Arts Journal, an open access, peer-reviewed journal published by the Open University, UK.

Edited by Leon Wainwright (Open University) and Kitty Zijlmans (Leiden University), Issue 5 takes the theme ‘Sustainable Art Communities: Creativity and Policy in the Transnational Caribbean’. It brings together academics, artists, curators and policymakers from various countries in the English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean and their diasporas to explore how the understanding and formation of sustainable community may be supported by art practice, curating and museums.

The entire collection is available now at:<>


Sustainable art communities: creativity and policy in the transnational Caribbean. An introduction
Leon Wainwright
Abstract and full text<>
Part 1 Histories and theories
Dreams of Utopia: sustaining art institutions in the transnational Caribbean
Erica James
Abstract and full text<>

Criticality and context: migrating meanings of art from the Caribbean
Therese Hadchity
Abstract and full text<>
Notes on imagining Afropea
Charl Landvreugd
Abstract and full text<>
Part 2 Visual investigations
Kolonialismo di nanzi: Anansi colonialism
Tirzo Martha
Abstract and full text<>
Art and agency in contemporary Curaçao: Tirzo Martha’s Blijf maar plakken
Kitty Zijlmans
Abstract and full text<>
Between a rock and a hard place: local-global dynamics of funding and sponsorship in Caribbean art
Winston Kellman
Abstract and full text<>
Randnotizen: notes from the edge
Nicholas Morris
Abstract and full text<>
Part 3 Collaborations
Policy entrepreneurship: expanding multimodality in Caribbean practice through Caribbean intransit
Marielle Barrow
Abstract and full text<>
Champagne tastes and mauby pockets: towards healthy cultural eco-systems
Annalee Davis
Abstract and full text<>
Sustainable art communities: an afterword
Mimi Sheller
Abstract and full text<>

This themed issue was developed through major public events at the Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam and Rivington Place (Iniva and Autograph ABP), London, and produced a large series of video clips featuring speakers’ presentations and audience discussion which accompanies the Journal publication. Its background is a two-year international research project led by Dr Leon Wainwright and Co-Investigator Prof. Dr. Kitty Zijlmans, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO/Humanities), with additional support from The Leverhulme Trust.

You may also be interested to read back issues of the Open Arts Journal, subscribe to our mailing list, or write to our editors with responses and suggestions for future themed issues. Wishing you an enjoyable read!

Dr Leon Wainwright
Reader in Art History
Department of Art History
The Open University

Publications by Dr Pat Noxolo

Noxolo, P. (2017) In/security: global geographies of a troubled everyday. Geography, 102(1), pp. 5-9.

Noxolo, P. and Featherstone, D. (2014) Co-producing Caribbean geographies of in/security. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 39, pp. 603–607.

Noxolo, P. (2015) A shape which represents an eternity of riddles: fractals and scale in the work of Wilson Harris. Cultural Geographies (online first).

Noxolo, P. (2015) Moving Maps: African-Caribbean Dance as Embodied Mapping. In Diasporas and Cultures of Mobilities, Vol 2, Diaspora, Memory and Intimacy, edited by Thomas Lacroix, Sarah Barbour, David Howard and Judith Misrahi-Barak, series PoCoPages, Coll. “Horizons anglophones”, Montpellier: Presses universitaires de la Méditerranée.

Noxolo, P. (2014) Towards an embodied securityscape: Brian Chikwava’s ‘Harare North’ and the asylum seeking body as site of articulation. Social and Cultural Geography, 15 (3), pp. 291-312.

Noxolo, P. and Preziuso, M. (2013) Postcolonial Imaginations: Approaching a “Fictionable” World Through the Novels of Maryse Condé and Wilson Harris. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 103 (1), 163-179.

Noxolo, P. and Preziuso, M. (2012) Moving matter: language in Caribbean literature as translation between dynamic forms of matter. Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, 14 (1), pp. 120-135.

Noxolo, P., Raghuram, P. and Madge, C. (2012) Unsettling responsibility: postcolonial interventions. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 37 (3), 418-429.

Raghuram, P., Madge, C. and Noxolo, P. (2009) Rethinking responsibility and care for a
postcolonial world. Geoforum, Special issue on ‘Postcoloniality, Responsibility and Care, 40 (1), pp. 5-13.

Noxolo, P. (2009) An ‘ordinary’ couple. Samantha Lewthwaite, Jermaine Lindsay, and the
“securitisation” of community’. In Noxolo, P. and Huysmans, J. (eds.) Community, Citizenship, and the ‘War on Terror’: Security and insecurity, Palgrave.

Noxolo, P. and Huysmans, J. (2009) Introduction: The politicisation of community, citizenship and identity. In Noxolo, P. and Huysmans, J. (eds.) Community, Citizenship, and the ‘War on Terror’: Security and insecurity, Palgrave.

Noxolo, P. (2009) Negotiating security: governmentality and asylum/immigration NGOs in the UK. In Dodds, K. and Ingram, A. (eds.), Geopolitics of Terror and Security, Ashgate.

Noxolo, P. (2009) Freedom, fear, and NGOs: balancing discourses of violence and humanity in securitising times. In Duffield, M. and Hewitt, V. (eds.) Empire, Development and Colonialism: the Past in the Present, James Currey.

Publications by Dr Anyaa Anim-Addo

Anim-Addo, A. (2016) “Thence to the River Plate”: steamship mobilities in the South Atlantic, 1851-1914, Atlantic Studies, 13(1), pp.6-24.

Anim-Addo, A. (2014) “The great event of the fortnight”: steamship rhythms and colonial communication. Mobilities 9 (3), pp. 369-383.

Anim-Addo, A., Hasty, W. and Peters, K. (2014) The mobilities of ships and shipped mobilities. Mobilities, 9 (3), pp. 337-334.

Anim-Addo, A. (2014) “With perfect regularity throughout”: hybrid geographies of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company. In J. Anderson and K. Peters (eds), Water Worlds: Human Geographies of the Oceans, Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 163-176.

Anim-Addo, A. (2013) Steaming between the islands: nineteenth-century maritime networks and the Caribbean archipelago. Island Studies, 8 (1), pp. 25-38.

Anim-Addo, A. (2011) “A wretched and slave-like mode of labor”: slavery, emancipation and the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company’s coaling stations. Historical Geography, 39, pp. 65-84.

Anim-Addo, A. (2007) The Black Body in the Criminal Process in London, 1700-1834. In J. Anim-Addo and S. Scafe (eds), I am Black, White, Yellow: An Introduction to the Black Body in Europe, London: Mango Publishing, pp. 118-137.

Publications by Dr Susan Mains

Mains, S. P. (2016) From Menie to Montego Bay: Documenting, representing and mobilising emotion in coastal heritage landscapes. In D. Tolia-Kelly, E. Waterton and S. Watson (eds.), Heritage, Affect and Emotion. Farnham: Ashgate.

Mains, S. P., Cupples, J. and Lukinbeal, C. (eds.) (2015) Mediated Geographies and Geographies of Media. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Springer.

Mains, S.P. (2015) From Bolt to Brand: Olympic Celebrations, Tourist Destinations and Media Landscapes. In S.P. Mains, J. Cupples and C. Lukinbeal (eds.), Mediated Geographies and Geographies of Media. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Springer.

Mains, S. P. (2014) Fieldwork, Heritage and Engaging Landscape Texts. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 38(4), pp. 525-545.

Mains, S. P., Gilmartin, M., Cullen, D., Mohammad, R., Tolia-Kelly, D. P. , Raghuram, P. and Winders, J. (2013) Postcolonial Migrations. Social and Cultural Geography, 14(2), pp. 131-144.

Skelton, T. and Mains, S. P. (2009) Intersections of neoliberalism, mobilities and development in the Caribbean: An introduction. The Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 30(2), pp. 151-157.

Mains, S. P. (2008) ‘English Fever’: Documenting the Caribbean Diaspora in ‘The Colony.’ In A. Escher, Anton, C. Lukinbeal and S. Zimmermann (Eds.) The Geography of Cinema–A Cinematic World, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner-Verlag, pp. 137-153.

Mains, S. P. (2008) Transnational Communities, Identities, and Moving Populations. In E. L. Jackiewicz and F. J. Bosco (Eds.), Placing Latin America: Contemporary Themes in Human Geography. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, pp.205-234.

Mains, S. P. (2004) Monumentally Caribbean: Borders, Bodies, and Redemptive City Spaces. Small Axe: A Caribbean Journal of Criticism, (16), pp. 179-198.

Mains, S. P. (2003) ‘The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain’: Media, Diversity, and Regional  Identity. In S. Ralph, H. Manchester, and C. Lees (Eds.) Diversity or Anarchy. Luton: University of Luton Press, pp. 225-232.

Mains, S. P. (2002) Maintaining National Identity at the Border: Scale, Masculinity, and the Policing of Immigration in Southern California. In A. Herod and M. Wright (Eds.) Geographies of Power: Placing Scale. London: Blackwell, pp.192-214.

Publications by Dr Kevon Rhiney

Beckford, C. L. and Rhiney, K. (eds.) (2016) Globalization, Agriculture and Food in the Caribbean: Climate Change, Gender and Geography, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Rhiney, K., Abdulkadri, A. and Waller, L.G. (2013) A Comparative Economic Analysis of National Economies Under the CARICOM Single Market and Economy: Towards a New Economic Geography (NEG) Model. Global Development Studies, 7(1-2), Winter-Spring 2013-2014.

Rhiney, K. and Cruse, R. (2012) Trench Town Rock: Reggae music, landscape inscription and the making of place in Kingston, Jamaica. Urban Studies Research Journal,

Jaffe, R., Rhiney, K. and Francis, C. (2012) Throw word: Graffiti, Space and Power in Kingston Jamaica. Caribbean Quarterly, 58(1), pp. 1-20.

Rhiney, K.  (2012) The Negril Tourism Industry: growth, challenges and future prospects. Caribbean Journal of Earth Sciences, 43(1), pp. 25-34.

Rhiney, K. (2011) Agri-tourism Linkages in Jamaica: Case Study of the Negril All-inclusive Hotel Sub-sector. In R.Torres & J. Momsen (eds.) Tourism and Agriculture: New Geographies of Consumption, Production and Rural Restructuring, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 117-138.

Cruse, R. and Rhiney, K. (2011) Reggae identité et paysage urbain dans un bidonville de Kingston-ouest. L’Espace Politique, 14(2).

Rhiney, K. (2010) Text and Textuality. In Wharf, B. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Human Geography. London: SAGE, pp. 482-484.

Rhiney, K. (2009) (Re)Defining the Link? Globalisation, Tourism and the Jamaican Food Network. In D. McGregor, D. Barker and D. Dodman (eds.) Global Change and Caribbean Vulnerability: Environment, Economy and Society at Risk, Kingston: The University of the West Indies Press, pp 237-258.

Rhiney, K. (2009) Forging New Linkages in a Changing Global Economy? The Case of Cooperatives and their Link with the Negril Tourism Industry, Jamaica. Caribbean Geography, 15(2), pp.  142-159.

Rhiney, K. and Dodman, D. (2008) We Nyammin?’ Food Supply, Authenticity and the Tourist Experience in Negril, Jamaica. In M. Daye, D. Chambers and S. Roberts (eds.) New Perspectives in Caribbean Tourism, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 115-132.

Publications by Dr David Featherstone

Featherstone, D.J. (2012) Solidarity: Hidden Histories and Geographies of Internationalism. London: Zed Books.

Featherstone, D.J. (2008) Resistance, Space and Political Identities: The Making of Counter-Global Networks. RGS-IBG Book Series, Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell.

Featherstone, D.J. and Painter, J. (ed.) (2013) Spatial Politics: Essays for Doreen Massey. Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell.

Featherstone, D.J. (2014) Black Internationalism, International Communism and Anti-Fascist Political Trajectories: African American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War. Twentieth Century Communism 7(7), pp. 9-40.

Ince, A., Featherstone, D.J., Cumbers, A., Mackinnon, D. and Strauss, K. (2015) British Jobs For British Workers? Negotiating Work, Nation and Globalization Through the Lindsey Oil Refinery Disputes. Antipode, 47 (1), pp. 139-157.

Featherstone, D.J. (2013) Black Internationalism, Subaltern Cosmopolitanism and the Spatial Politics of Anti-Fascism. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 103 (6), pp. 1406-1420.

Featherstone, D.J. (2007) The spatial politics of the past unbound: transnational networks and the making of political identities, Global Networks, 7 (4), pp. 430-452.

Featherstone, D.J. (2005) Towards the relational construction of militant particularisms: or why the geographies of past struggles matter for resistance to neo-liberal globalisation. Antipode, 37 (2), pp. 250-271.

Featherstone, D.J. (2005) Atlantic networks, antagonisms and the formation of subaltern political identities. Social and Cultural Geography, 6 (3), pp. 387-404.

Featherstone, D.J. (2003) Spatialities of transnational resistance to globalisation: the maps of grievance of the Inter-Continental Caravan. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 28(4), pp. 404-421.

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